الگوها و شاخص‌های سنجش و ارزیابی کارایی قدرت نرم کشورها

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسنده

گروه علوم سیاسی، دانشگاه یاسوج، یاسوج، ایران

چکیده

پس از مطرح‌شدن مفهوم «قدرت نرم» توسط جوزف نای در دهۀ 1990، این مفهوم جایگاه ویژه‌ای در مطالعات قدرت و روابط بین‌الملل یافت و به یکی از مفاهیم محوریِ این حوزه‌ها تبدیل شد. یکی از موضوعات مطرح دربارۀ تمامی اشکال قدرت از جمله قدرت نرم، سنجش قدرت است. ازآنجاکه قدرت امری نسبی است، با استفاده از سنجش و مقایسه معنا می‌یابد؛ ازاین‌رو سنجش قدرت ملی کشورها به منظور تعیین جایگاه آن‌ها در نظام جهانی، از دغدغه‌های دانشمندان علوم سیاسی و روابط بین‌الملل بوده است. پژوهش حاضر می‌کوشد با توجه به اهمیت‌یافتن قدرت نرم در سال‌های اخیر و ضرورت سنجش آن به‌رغم دشواری‌های موجود در این زمینه، به بررسی مطالعات و اقدامات انجام‌شده دربارۀ آن بپردازد و الگوهای مختلف مطرح‌شده را مورد کنکاش و بررسی قرار دهد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Patterns and Indicators for Assessment and Evaluation of Soft Power Effectiveness in World Countries

نویسنده [English]

  • aboozar rafiei ghahsareh
department of political science, university of yasuj, yasuj, Iran
چکیده [English]

Following the introduction of “soft power” by Joseph Nye in 1990s, this concept received special attention in studies related to power and the international relations, turning to a key concept in these areas. Power evaluation is commonly practiced in all forms of power and in soft power in particular. Being a relative concept, power becomes meaningful through evaluation, assessment and comparison. Therefore, it has always been a challenge for international affairs’ experts and political scientists to evaluate and assess the national power of the states to determine their position in world system. This paper intends to provide appropriate responses to the following questions: First; how significant is evaluation of soft power? Second; what are the challenges to soft power evaluation? And third; what are the major patterns for evaluation of soft power and the previous efforts to that end? The findings of this research work, achieved through a descriptive-analytical method, indicate that due to the increasing importance of soft power during the recent years, the techniques of evaluation and assessment of this form of power have eventually gained momentum, particularly in terms of adopting appropriate strategies in soft power literature. However, as this paper has found out, unlike hard power, it is difficult to evaluate effectiveness of soft power due to the nature of soft power and its typical resources. Regardless of these hardships and thanks to the importance of soft power evaluation, many steps have been already taken in international level and several patterns have been introduced in this field of study

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • hard power
  • Soft power
  • Joseph Nye
  • evaluation and assessment
  • patterns and indicators